After more than twelve years of publishing The Wolverhampton Gunlock Makers website, this is probably the final update owing to the imminent cessation of webspace provision by this ISP. The contact email addresses should continue to be valid for the foreseeable future

© C. V. Clark 2004
(Last Revision June 29th 2016)

wolverhampton-glms (at)



The following transcribed extract is from
Written in 1834
William Greener (Gunmaker of Newcastle)
First published 1835
Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman;

The complete book is freely available in digitized format on Google™



I  have  always felt as  great  a  pleasure  in  handling
a  gun  with  a  pair  of   good  locks, as  some  would
experience  in  listening  to  the  musical  productions
of   the  great   Handel.  There  is  to  me   a  superior
 music   in   the  tack  of   the  scear  on   the  tumbler,
and the fine  elasticity  of  the  main-springs,  moving
with   a   sort   of   fine   oily  feel,  though   light  as
sharp  as   the   lightning   playing   in   the   heavens.
There   have    been    many   good   lock-makers  and
there   yet   are   many;   but  still  they  have,  I fear,
decreased    much   of  late.  From  the  great  demand
for  second-rate  goods,  they are  rarely  called  upon
to  make  a  first-rate  article;   and thus,  from  being
so   little   accustomed   to  make   any   but   inferior
locks,    they,    of  course,   are    out   of     practice.
In stead  of  the  manufacture of  the  best being more
encouraged,   it   is  becoming  every  day   more  rare
to    meet   with    a   good   one.   There   is   a  great
degree  of  skill  displayed  in  the  making   of  locks,
though  to  the  casual  observer  it  does  not  appear.
On  the  simple  hanging  of  the  swivel,  depends  all
the    sweetness   of   the  play  of   the    main-spring;
and   on   the   placing   the  hole  for   the   scear-pin,
depends   the   sweetness  of   the   scear   playing   on
the   tumbler.   Many  who  now  pass   for   excellent
workmen  would   find   this  a  difficult  undertaking,
simple    as    it   may   seem,  without  a   pattern  by
which   to  work.   All  locks   for  percussion  should
have  the  greatest   strength  of   main-spring  at  the
moment    they    strike    the    nipple,   or,   what  is
termed,   when   the  lock  is  down.  On  the pitching
the  scear,   depends   the  cutting   of   the bents,  and
on    their     formation,    the  danger   of    the    lock
catching  at   half-cock,   when  the   trigger  is  made
to   pull    easy;    but    these   observations   will   be
 understood   by   a   lock-maker    better   than   I  can
explain them                                                             
     The  quality  of  all  locks  depends  on   the   price
they    cost    filing,   and   without    you     pay    the
workman   a  proper    remuneration,   you   may  rely
on    having     them     somewhere    inferior,   or   in
accordance   with   the  price,   which   it   requires  a
workman   to   point   out;   so  that,  without a doubt,
any  person,  if  not  a  first-rate judge,  is  completely
resting  on  the   honesty  of  the  workman.              
    There   is   a   family    in    Wolverhampton    who
have   obtained   great   reputation    as   lock-makers,
and    I   must    say   deservedly.    It    were    almost
needless   to  mention   their   names,  as  they  are  to
the   trade,  at  any  event,  well  known;   I  mean  the
RAZIERS.     They     have    been     lock-makers   for
thirty   years,  and  their  father  forty   before   them.
Their   locks  are  certainly   the  most  perfect  pieces
of   machinery   made   at   the  present   day,   though
they   will   have   their    price,   their   firmness  for
which   has   given   rise   to   many    impositions  on
 country    makers,    by   the   Birmingham   travellers 
imposing  as  Braziers'  locks  what   they  never  saw,
 and    thus    pocketing     twenty    shillings    a    pair.
Therefore,    the   only   sure   way   is  to   get    them
direct   from    themselves;  and  I  will  be  bound,  if
either    brother   state   them   to  be  of  best  quality,
you   may   take   his   word,  as  their   reputation,  as
honest   tradesmen,   stands   high.    There    may   be,
I   have  no   doubt,  as  able  workmen  as  themselves,
yet   so   addicted   are   the  gun-trade  in   general  to
the    sin   of    drunkenness,  that   only   one   out   of
twenty   can   be   believed   on   his oath;  as the gene-
rality    would   cheat    their   fathers   to  obtain   the
means   of  indulging    that   evil   propensity.   When 
they   do   get   started   to  work,   if   you  go  to  one
 and  say,   "Tom,   now   I   want   a   pair  of   the  best 
locks    you   can  make;"    he   will   say,   "you    may
depend   on   having   them;  trust   to   me."  Well,   as
soon   as   he   commences,    he   is   determined    that
they   shall   not   be   the  best;  for  he  has   drunk  so
many   days,  that   in   order   to  keep   his  family out
of   the   workhouse,  he   must   have  so   much   work
done,  and,  of   course,  so  much  money  by  Saturday 
night;   and   thus   locks,  which   should   have   taken
him    nearly   a   week   to  make,   are   completed   in
 three   days.  Thus   it   is  with    many   of   the  trade; 
they  can   make  a  dupe  of   you  in  spite  of  all  your
exertions,   and   it   follows,   that,   when   an   honest
man   is   found,   he   is   patronised.    An   immensity
of  locks   are   made,  for   which   the   filer   has   not
above    sixpence     each,    and    some    less.    In Bir-
mingham,  if   you   know   how   to  go  about  it,  you
may   buy   them   sometimes  at  almost   half-a-crown
a  bushel;   so   low   have   they   brought   the   manu-
facture    of    the     gun-trade.    Locks,    with    steel 
scears   and   tumblers,  which  a  few  years  ago  were
only  found  in  best   locks,  can   now   be   bought  at
three  shillings  and   sixpence  a  pair, and   so  on,  up
to  between   three  and  four   pounds   a  pair;  but  so
good   is   the   outside   appearance  of   all   locks  be-
tween   twelve  shillings  a  pair  and   four  pounds,  it
requires   a   good   judge  to  ascertain   their   quality.

I have included this extract because I wanted to illustrate the essence of my research, by way of contemporary account.  It gives not only an insight into the gunlock trade during the time of gunmaker William Greener (father of William Wellington Greener - later world-renowned gunmaker of Birmingham), but also mentions in context Wolverhampton, the gunlock-making Brazier family and their status in the gunlock trade.


Research continues - The following names have all played a part in Wolverhampton's gunlock and associated trades:

Solomon Adey,  Charles Allcock,  Thomas Allmark,  Lesley T. Arnold, Joseph K. Andrews,  Noah Aston,  William Aston,  Reginald W. Atkins,  Charles [St] Aubin, 
William H. [St] Aubin,  Joseph Badger,  Thomas Badger,  Joseph Bagley,  James Barnett,  William J. Barnett,  James Barrett,  Thomas Barrett,  Henry Bassett, 
Henry T. Bassett,  Sydney Bassett,  Stanley H. Bassett,  Thomas Bassett,  William Bassett,  Joseph Bate,  Alfred Beddows,  William Beddow[e]s,  Richard Bellingham, 
James Bennett,  Charles S. Blanton,  Henry E. Blanton,  David Bowen,  William Bolton,  John Booth,  Edward Bowden,  James Bradney,  John Bradney,  Joseph Bradney, 
Edward Brassman,  Thomas Bratt,  Benjamin Brazier(1),  Benjamin Brazier(2),  Benjamin Brazier(3),  Charles Brazier,  Donald B. Brazier,  Edwin Brazier,  Eleanor Brazier, 
Elizabeth Brazier, Frederick Brazier/Brasier,  George Brazier,  Helena Brazier,  James Brazier/Brasier(1),  James Brazier(2),  James Brazier(3),  John Brazier, 
Joseph Brazier(1),  Joseph Brazier(2),  Joseph Brazier(3),  Joseph S. Brazier,  Richard Brazier,  Sarah Brazier,  Thomas Brazier(1),  Thomas Brazier(2), Thomas Brazier(3), 
William Brazier,  Edwin Brewster,  William Brewster,  John Brier,  John Brindley,  Joseph Bristow,  Bernard Brittain,  James Brittain/Britton,  Samuel Brittain, 
Thomas Brittain, 
Charles Broadbent,  Samuel Brotherton,  Thomas Brown,  Thomas Brueton/Bruerton/Brewton,  Edward Bullimore,  James Bullock,  Joseph Bullock, 
Leonard Bullock,  George Butler,  John Butler,  Joseph Butler,  Thomas Butler(1),  Thomas Butler(2),  William Butler,  Luke Callaghan,  Thomas Callaghan,  Isaac Cartwright, 
Thomas Challinor,  Edwin Chilton,  William B. Chilton,  James Choles,  John Churm,  John Clempson,  Henry Cliff,  Richard Cliff,  Robert Cliff,  Thomas Collins, 
George Cook[e],  George Cooper,  James Cooper,  Joseph Cotterhill,  William Cotterhill,  Joseph Cox,  Anthony Cresswell,  Benjamin Cresswell,  James Cresswell, 
William Curtis,  William Daly,  William B. Daly,  Frederick R. Daly,  Arthur V. Daly,  Adam Dangerfield,  Edward Dangerfield,  Noah Dangerfield,  John Darlaston, 
John Davies,  Jesse Dawes,  William Dawes,  Thomas Devey,  Martin Dewel,  George Dodd,  Henry Dodd,  William H. Dodd,  Joseph Drew,  Joseph Dudley, 
Thomas Dudley(1),  Thomas Dudley(2),  Edward Dudwell,  William H. Dudwell,  Duncombe George,  John Edge,  Thomas Edge,  John F. Edwards,  Joseph Edwards, 
William Edwards,  William Evans,  Benjamin Faulkner,  Henry Fellows/Fellowes,  Francis Ferrett,  Benjamin Fisher,  Henry Fisher,  John Fisher,  William Fisher, 
George Fletcher,  Joseph Fletcher,  William Fletcher,  Peter Fossbrook,  Charles Foster,  Thomas Foster,  William Foster,  John Fox,  Charles Gandy, 
Richard German/Jerman,  Edward Gibbons,  James Gill,  Emmanuel Golcher,  James Grainger(1),  James Grainger(2),  John Grainger(1),  John Grainger(2), 
Joseph Grainger(1),  Joseph Grainger(2),  Thomas Grainger, James G. Gregory,  Richard C. Griffin,  Gideon Griffiths,  Joseph Groom,  Richard Groom,  Edward Grosvenor, 
Joseph Groves,  Joseph Guest,  Joseph Gutteridge,  William Hadley,  William F. Hancher,  William Hand,  Benjamin Harnett/Harnitt/Arnitt,  Samuel Harper,  Thomas Harris, 
Henry Hawkins,  H[enry]. Hayes,  George Hemmingsley/Hemingsley,  John Hemmingsley/Hemingsley,  Thomas Hickin/Hicken,  Isaac Hill,  Josiah Hill,  Thomas Hill, 
George Hipwood,  Charles Hodgkins,  John Holden,  Thomas Holland,  Edward Homer,  Edward C. Homer,  James Homer,  Kemsey Homer,  Richard Homer,  William Homer,
Benjamin Hughes,  Edward Hughes,  Edwin H. Hughes,  George Hughes,  John Hughes(1),  John Hughes(2),  John Hughes(3),  Samuel Hughes,  John Instone/Inston, 
Reuben Jackson,  John James,  George Jessup/Jessop,  Allen Jones,  Alfred Jones,  Henry Jones,  John Jones,  Joseph Jones,  Richard Jones,  Roger Jones, 
Thomas Jones,  William Kingston,  Robert Lambert,  Dennis Landred,  Alfred Law,  John Law(1),  John Law(2),  John Law(3),  Joseph Law,  Peter Law,  Richard Law, 
Stephen Law,  Thomas Law(1),  Thomas Law(2),  Richard Lawson,  Patrick Leonard,  Richard Ling(1),  Richard Ling(2),  Robert Littleward,  Edmund Lockley,  Harold Lockley, 
William Lockley,  James Luckruck,  James Haycock Mander,  Samuel B. Mansfield,  William Mansfield,  Edward Mantle,  William Marlow,  John Marrian,  James Marrian, 
Richard Marshall,  Jonah Marston,  Mark Marston,  Aaron Martin,  John Mason,  Joseph Mason,  Francis B. Matthews,  George F. Matthews,  William M. Matthews, 
Charles McLaw/M'Cleur,  Joshua Miles,  Herbert Mills,  Richard Mills,  Edward Mitchel,  John Moore,  John R. Moore,  George Morris,  John Morris,  Thomas Morris, 
James Moseley/Mosely/Mosley,  Joseph Moseley/Mosely,   John Moss[e],   Robert Moss[e],   John Mountford,  Joseph Mountford,  Ernest Munn,  George J. Munn, 
Joseph Munn,  William Munn,  John Newton,  Thomas Newton(1),  Thomas Newton(2),  Benjamin Parker,  Henry Parker,  Isaac Parker,  James Parker,  John Parker, 
Joseph Parker,  Richard Parker,  John Parkes(1),  John Parkes(2),  Joseph Parsons,  David Partridge,  Richard Perkins,  George Perry,  Homer Perry,  John Perry(1), 
John Perry(2),  Thomas Perry,  William Perry,  Thomas Phillips,  John Pilsbury,  Peter Pinckston,  John Pool[e],  William Pool[e],  Charles Powell,  Thomas Povey, 
George Radcliffe,  William E. Rees,  Meshack Richards,  Daniel Rigby(1),  Daniel Rigby(2),  John Rigby,  Thomas Rigby,  Josiah Riley,  James Roberts,  Alfred Robinson, 
William Rock,  John Russell,  Thomas Rycroft,  Thomas Savage,  John A. Scotcher,  John Shale,  Thomas Shaw,  William Shaw,  John Short,  Thomas Simkin, 
John Skipwood,  Benjamin Slater,  William Slater,  Edward Smith,  Elijah Smith,  Francis Smith,  Frederick O. Smith,  George Smith,  Samuel Smith,  W. T. Charles Smith, 
W. Spencer, John Spink[e],  William Spinke(1),  William Spinke(2),  Bernard Stanton,  Frederick R. H. Stanton,  George Stanton,  John Stanton,  John B. Stanton, 
John C. Stanton,  Thomas Stanton,  Joseph Steatham,  Frederick Stiles,  Charles Stilliard/Stillyard/Steelyard,  Cornelius Stilliard,  Frederick Stilliard,  George Stilliard, 
Martin Stilliard, John Stokes,  Joseph S. Stokes,  Thomas Stokes,  Edmund Stubbings/Stebbins,  John Stych[e],  Edward Stych[e],  George Taberner, 
Robert Tayler/Taylor, Jeremiah Taylor, Thomas Taylor,  William Taylor,  George Terry,  Samuel Terry,  John Thomas,  William Thomas,  William Tibbetts,  Eli Tonks, 
John Tonks, Thomas Tonks,  William Troman,  Joseph Tuckley,  John Turner,  Joseph Turner(1),  Joseph Turner(2),  William Turner,  George Turton,  Richard Underhill, 
John Waddams/Wadhams,  William Wadhams,  Frederick Wakeman,  Joseph Wakeman,  John Walker,  Robert A. Wallin,  Edwin H. Walls(1),  Edwin H. Walls(2), 
Thomas Ward, William Warren, Reginald Watkins,  John Wesley,  John Weston,  Joseph Weston,  Thomas Westwood,  George Whitehouse,  Jesse Whitehouse, 
John Whitehouse, Joseph Whitehouse, Samuel Whitehouse,  Sarah Whitehouse,  Thomas Whitehouse(1),  Thomas Whitehouse(2),  John Whittingham,  Edwin Wicks, 
Daniel Wilkes, Edward Wilk[e]s, George Wilkes,  John Wilkes,  Samuel Wilkes,  Thomas Wilk[e]s,  William Wilkes,  John Wilkins,  William Wilkinson,  John Wilson, 
Thomas Wilson,  William Wilson,  Louis Wires,  John Wood,  Edward Wooley,  Edward Wright,  Enoch Wright


Gunlock-Making in Wolverhampton

"Up early, and off to Wolverhampton to see Mr. Brazier, 
  the great [gun]lockmaker of Britain, about the lock 
for my new stanchion [gun]. I had a terrible job to find 
the right man, as the name of 'Brazier' here was like 
'Smith,' too universal to be distinguished. After an 
hour's tramp in mud and filthy streets, I got on the right 
scent, and found him at his little country seat, called 
'The Ashes,' and ascertained that 'Joseph Brazier, Esq.' 
was the precise direction to catch him."   

 Extract of November 16th 1849 from:
'The Diary of Colonel Peter Hawker 1802 - 1853'
(first published 1893 by Longmans, Green and Company)


Wolverhampton, now a city within the English West Midlands, has always been involved with metal-working industries. With the coming of the Industrial Revolution and the town's proximity to the extensive coal, iron ore and limestone underground deposits, Wolverhampton saw a considerable increase in artisan trades working in iron and steel. All kinds of tools, implements and fittings were produced for an ever-increasing diversity of markets. A contemporaneous expansion of nearby Birmingham and its burgeoning gun trade led to a need for gun part manufacturers, upon which the skilled metal-workers quickly seized. 

An integral part of any gun is the mechanism by which it is fired, and is referred to as the lock (as in the old saying 'Lock, stock and barrel'). Within a relatively short period and mainly through their growing reputation for quality work, the Wolverhampton gunlock makers (primarily the Brazier family initially) ensured that the prestigious London gunmakers became principal patrons of their trade. By the mid-nineteenth century many London-made guns were being furnished with locks from Wolverhampton.

It is not known who the first gunlock maker was to set up in Wolverhampton; and it is unlikely that they were engaged solely in gunlock-making, the trade not then being as specialised as it would become. Around 1660 John Perry was known as a gunsmith in nearby Bilston, a chapelry of Wolverhampton. Of some significance are the suggested associations between the Perry family and several Wolverhampton families later involved with gunlock-making. 

Gunlocks were produced in Wolverhampton before the beginning of the eighteenth century, although there is very little documented history of the town's small businesses prior to the last quarter of that century. The neighbouring villages of Coseley and Ettingshall had various types of lock-making industry, and in that area an Edward Brassman and a Joseph Bullock were recorded around 1760 as carrying on their trade as gunlock filers. The Church of England and Roman Catholic records for the adjoining township of Sedgley contain the surnames of many of the families who became known as gunlock makers of Wolverhampton: Perry, Newton, Homer, Brazier, Stanton, Law, Grainger. Of those, Thomas Newton was described in the 1780 Birmingham Directory as a gunlock maker of St John's Square, Wolverhampton. To date, he is the earliest recorded gunlock maker to have an address within the town.

The gunlocks produced up until the end of the first quarter of the nineteenth century were flintlocks for fowling pieces (shotguns), muskets and pistols. A lucrative source of income was government contract work for military weapons such as the famous 'Brown Bess' musket. A new best quality London double-barrelled flintlock shotgun was then priced in the region of £45, the pair of locks for which costing about £4. Flintlocks, mainly for export, continued in production even after the invention and adoption of the percussion cap during the 1820s.

The gunlock trade was comprised mainly of businesses having just one or two tradesmen. Eventually the larger gunlock businesses had an owner/master gunlock maker, skilled in all aspects of his trade. The employees were generally divided into specific sub-trades: forgers, filers, pin (screw) makers and spring makers. Some were engaged as outworkers in their own small workshops, and a few undertook the manufacture of a variety of gun components such as sights, trigger-guards, butt-plates etcetera. The work was labour-intensive, with the smiths working at forging hearths, benches, vices and foot-treadle lathes. The hammer, chisel and file were his principal hand-tools, with simple dies, jigs and implements made in-house specifically for particular operations. The whole job of the gunlock maker required the considerable skill acquired through an apprenticeship which was typically for a period of seven or more years and ended on the person attaining the age of 21. After apprenticeship, and in common with many other trades, the qualified gunlock maker was then usually classed as a 'journeyman', meaning that he was paid for his work by-the-day ('journeyman' being derived from the French word jour = day). Often a journeyman gunlock maker worked for several employers at their premises, and this sometimes entailed him travelling far and wide in search of work. Nonetheless, the trade continued on the common practice of employing family members; usually a father apprenticing his son either to himself or a relative, with the accepted presumption that the family business would be passed down through successive generations. Occasionally, the widow of the head of a family continued to run the business, either using the deceased's name or their own. Whether or not these widows were involved with the actual practicalities of gunlock-making is not known.

With motive power in the form of steam engines driving overhead take-off shafts and the increasing availability of machine tools, the preliminary 'roughing' procedures became more mechanised, particularly the forging of bar steel into rough components. Progress in the steel-making industry led to improved quality control of materials. Better and more closely controlled grades of steel led to greater reliability in gunlocks through the components being more durable and the tools with which they were made being more efficient. The transition from muzzle-loading to breech-loading guns after 1860 saw the gunlock industry of Wolverhampton take on the production of breech-loading actions and expand accordingly. Then the trade had become as large and specialised as it would ever be, with the companies of Joseph Brazier & Sons, John Stanton & Co and Edwin Chilton & Son recognised as the finest gunlock makers in the world.  

The last decade of the nineteenth century saw the development of new metal-working and engineering industries catering for mass-markets. Bicycle manufacturing and then the automotive trade became the town's large employers. Because wages were better with such companies as Sunbeam and Clyno, many skilled men left the gunlock trade in search of a higher standard of living. From around 1900 until WWI it became increasingly difficult to attract young men into gunlock-making apprenticeships, particularly when the trade began to be regarded as not only underpaid but declining. Although both WWI and WWII saw the remaining gunlock companies involved once again in government contract work, there was to be no long-lasting renaissance for the trade.

The quality of the best gunlocks made throughout the second half of the nineteenth century has been equalled but never surpassed. Sub-contracted production drop-forging and electric motor-driven precision machines running high-speed-steel and tungsten-carbide tooling progressively reduced the time taken for roughing out. But the hand fitting and finishing have always remained essential operations.  

By the late 1950s, although the three most famous Wolverhampton gunlock-making companies were still in existence in the town, the families whose names they bore played no part in them. Within twenty years the trade was reduced to two companies. Another twenty years saw just one company remaining in the Wolverhampton area which could offer a production facility for gunlocks. In 2006 that last company moved elsewhere, bringing to an end the long, distinguished era of gunlock-making in Wolverhampton.




It      having     come    to    the    knowledge    of    the    Patentee    that
certain   persons   are   making   and   vending  John  Stanton's "Patent
Improved Self-acting Half-cock Safety Gun-lock" without his license or
authority,  and  thereby  infringing   his  patent,  Notice  is  hereby given
that all such persons  will  be proceeded  against  for such infringement.
Purchasers  of  Gun-locks  are  hereby  cautioned  not  to  buy any Gun-
lock  made  upon  John Stanton's  patented  principle  unless  the  same
bears his  name.  Any  persons vending such  locks not so marked after
this  notice  will  be  held responsible, and be  proceeded against accord
Any  information  as  to  the  making   and  selling  Gun-locks  being  no
infringement  of  the  said  patent  will  be  thankfully   received  by  the
Patentee,  John Stanton,  Clifton Street,  Wolverhampton;  or by Henry
Kitson,  his  Attorney,  Queen Street,  Wolverhampton.                          

A legal notice issued by John Stanton,
as it appeared in British newspapers
June, 1867


The author would like to acknowledge all the help he has received during more than forty years of research from: 

Wolverhampton Central Library
Birmingham Central Library
Wolverhampton Archives & Local Studies
Wolverhampton City Council (Law & Resources Dept.)
Lichfield Joint Records Office
Staffordshire County Records Office
Dti Companies Registration Office
The William Salt Library
The Worshipful Company of Gunmakers
Dudley Archives & Local History Service
Free UKGEN (FreeBMD, FreeCen, FreeReg)

and the individual contributors:

Marion Arnitt 
Maj. D. H. L. Back
Hon. Richard Beaumont (at James Purdey & Sons Ltd.)
E. Dora Billingsley
Barry Brazier
David Brazier (at the Brazier surname website)
Rev. Fr. Francis Brazier
Hugh Brazier
Joseph Brazier
Lilias H. (St Aubin) Brazier
D. J. Brown
Anthony V. Bullock
J. Harlan Buzby
David Chilton (at the Chilton surname website)
Mr. & Mrs. F. R. Daly
Rev. Fr. Peter Dennison
Joanna Donohue
Charles Eaves
Peter Edridge
Christine Ellis
Cyril Gibbons
S. James Gooding
Harry W. Griffiths
Lesley B. Hampton

Chris Henry (The Museum of Naval Firepower)
Kathryn Hill
H. Hodson
June James
Clive Law
Victor Mitchell
Pauline Nicholson
Julia A. Pursehouse
Ian Rooke
Andrew Short
Anthony Smith
John Stanton & the Stanton family
Elsie Van der Star
Michael Swingler

Iris Tudor
David Wakelin
Dr. H. A. S. Walker
Mark Wallin (at York & Wallin Ltd.)
John Wilkinson

W. H. Clark (1933 - 2005) and W. T. C. Smith (1912 - 1987)